What is psychosis? actress Genevieve NNaji is allegedly suffering from
Psychosis Meaning : Psychosis Is characterised by a loss of touch with reality, as well as hallucinations and delusions. It is a symptom of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but it can also be caused by a variety of other conditions.
You will learn more about psychosis in this article, including what causes it and the treatment options available..
What is psychosis?
Psychosis has an impact on a person’s thoughts and perceptions. Their senses may appear to detect things that do not exist, and they may struggle to distinguish between what is real and what is false.
Psychotic patients may:
- Hear voices
- See people or objects that aren’t there,
- Smell odours that others can’t.
They may also believe they are in danger, that someone is chasing them, or that they are very important when none of these things are true.
Because the delusions appear to be real, a person may be unaware that they are suffering from psychosis. Psychosis can be frightening and perplexing. Symptoms can sometimes lead to a person harming themselves. They may, in rare cases, cause harm to another person.
One of the most common symptoms of schizophrenia is psychosis.
Symptoms of psychosis
The signs and symptoms of psychosis include:
- Hallucinations: The person hears, sees, smells, tastes, or feels things that do not exist.
- Delusions: The person believes false information and may have unfounded fears or suspicions.
- Disorganized thinking, speech, and behavior: In speech and thought, the person may jump between unrelated topics, making connections that others may find illogical. Others may not understand what they are saying.
- Catatonia: The person may become unresponsive.
- Unusual psychomotor behavior: Pacing, tapping, and fidgeting are examples of unintentional movements.
The person may also face Trusted Source:
- mood changes
- difficulty focusing
- sleep problems
Psychosis symptoms can manifest quickly or slowly, depending on the cause. It can also vary in severity. When it first appears, it may be mild, but it will become more intense over time.
The mild, early symptoms of psychosis might includeTrusted Source:
- general anxiety
- social isolation
- problems focusing
- mild or moderate disturbances in language, energy levels, and thinking
- difficulty taking initiative
- lower tolerance to stress
- sleep problems
- neglecting self-careTrusted Source
- feelings of suspicion
- thoughts and ideas that seem strange to others
Hallucinations can affect any of the senses — sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch — in the person with psychosis.
For people with schizophrenia, auditory hallucinations appear to be the most common type of hallucination. The person hears things and believes they are true even though they are not.
The person frequently hears voices. One or more voices may be present, and they will sound exactly like real people.
The voices may:
- be recognisable, nonspecific, or of someone who has died
- sound either clear or like mumbling in the background
- give instructions or criticize the person
- be intermittent or constant
Hearing voices can be perplexing and have an impact on one’s behaviour. It can lead to self-harm or, less frequently, harm to others.
Psychosis can be managed or prevented with treatment, but if a person stops taking their medication, it can return.
There may also be a risk of suicide.
A person may have delusions during a psychotic episode.
People suffering from paranoid delusions may be suspicious of people or organisations, believing they are plotting to harm them.
Delusions of grandeur are characterised by a strong belief in one’s own special power or authority. They may believe, for example, that they are a political leader.
Anyone suffering from psychosis should seek medical help immediately. Treatment can help in both the short and long term.
Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia In most cases, Trusted Source appears in a person’s teenage years or early adulthood. Early treatment can improve long-term outcomes, but accurate diagnosis from healthcare professionals can take time.
If a young person exhibits the following symptoms, psychiatrists advise considering the possibility of a psychotic disorder.
- increased social withdrawal
- changes in mood
- reduced focus or performance at school or work
- distress or agitation without being able to explain why
Although there is no biological test for psychosis, laboratory tests can help rule out other medical issues that could be causing the symptoms.
For doctor to diagnose psychosis, He or she will carry out a clinical examination and ask various questions.
They will ask about:
- the person’s experiences, thoughts, and daily activities
- any family history of psychiatric illness
- any medical and recreational drug use
- any other symptoms
The patient may also do tests to rule out other factors, including:
- the use of drugs or other substances
- a head injury
- other medical conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or a brain tumor
Possible tests include:
- blood tests
- an electroencephalogram (EEG), which records brain activity.
If the symptoms point to a psychiatric cause, the doctor will use the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) to make a diagnosis.
The exact causes of psychosis are not well-understood but might involve:
- Genetic factors: Research shows that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share a common genetic causeTrusted Source.
- Hormones: Some people experience postpartum psychosis after giving birth. Due to this, and the fact that the early signs of psychosis often occur first in adolescents, some expertsTrusted Source have suggested that hormonal factors may play a role in those with a genetic susceptibility.
- Brain changes: Tests have found differences in brain chemicals — specifically, the activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine — in people who experience psychosis.
A lack of sleepTrusted Source may also trigger psychosis.
Psychosis can be disruptive, but treatment is available to help people manage it.
Antipsychotic drugsTrusted Source are the main form of treatment for people with a psychotic illness.
Antipsychotics can reduce psychosis symptoms in people with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. However, they do not treat or cure the underlying condition.
Examples of these medications include:
- haloperidol (Haldol)
- chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
- clozapine (Clozaril)
A person can only use these drugs under supervision from a doctor, as they can have adverse effects.
The doctor will also treat any underlying conditions responsible for the psychosis. Where possible, family supportTrusted Source can also help.
Acute and maintenance phases of schizophrenia
In schizophrenia, there are two phases of antipsychotic treatment:
The person may needTrusted Source to stay in the hospital.
Sometimes, a doctor will prescribe rapid tranquilization. They give the person a fast acting medication that relaxes them to ensure that they do not harm themselves or others.
The person does not stay in the hospital but uses antipsychotic drugs to help prevent further episodes. Stopping the medication can lead to relapses.
Psychotherapy can also help treat cognitive issues and other symptomsTrusted Source of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.
Apart from schizophrenia, various other disorders and factors can cause psychosis. The different types include:
- Schizoaffective disorder: This disorder is similar to schizophrenia but includes periods of mood disturbances.
- Brief psychotic disorder: Symptoms occur in response to a stressful life event, last less than a month, and do not return.
- Delusional disorder: The person has a strong belief in something irrational and often bizarre with no factual basis.
- Bipolar psychosis: Some people with bipolar disorder experience psychosis, either during a very high or very low mood.
- Severe depression: Also known as major depressive disorder with psychotic features.
- Postpartum (postnatal) : This type of psychosis can present after giving birth.
- Substance-induced psychosis: The misuse of alcohol, some recreational drugs, and certain prescription drugs can cause this.
Psychosis can also result from other disorders, such as:
- a brain tumor or cyst
- dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease
- neurological conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease
- HIV and other infections that can affect the brain
- some types of epilepsy
- low blood sugar
Thanks for using our platform for learning about Psychosis Meaning, treatment, Diagnosis, Causes, Treatment, Types
Source : Medical News Today
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